Equine Dentist Laws by State

State law regulates equine dentistry

State law regulates equine dentistry

All states regulate the practice of equine dentistry. Find out what is legal in your state.New window.

Most states require equine dentists to first earn a degree in veterinary medicine and become licensed veterinarians.

Optional certification in equine dentistry also exists with various requirements for the title of "Equine Dentist."

Because of the lack of uniform rules and regulations about who qualifies as an "Equine Dentist," horse owners should check with their local and state regulatory boards to determine the qualifications of individuals offering equine dental services.

Common requirements to become an equine dentist per US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Degree Level: Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Degree Field: Veterinary Medicine
Licensure: Required in all states

Dentistry courses are not required for veterinary licensure in any state, although state laws say dentistry can be performed by a licensed veterinarian.

Requirements for veterinary technicians

A veterinary technician must pass an examination in all states to work in the position. The examination tests the knowledge and skills of a veterinary technician to ensure the candidate has the qualifications to work with animals.

States allowing non-veterinarians to perform equine dental work

Some states do allow non-veterinarians to perform equine dental work, although additional conditions may apply, so please check your state statutes and regulations for additional information. These states include: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Florida, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia.

States exempting teeth floating from the practice of veterinary medicine

Connecticut, Florida, Maryland, and Vermont exempt equine teeth floating from the practice of veterinary medicine, thereby allowing non-veterinarians to perform the task without supervision by a veterinarian, although it appears that these exemptions are limited to using non-motorized tools.

State index

Shortcut to your state by clicking the appropriate letter.


Alabama

Veterinarians must be licensed and veterinary medicine includes veterinary surgery, theriogenology (reproduction), dentistry, acupuncture, animal psychology, chiropractic, and all other branches or specialties of veterinary practice.

Veterinary technicians are allowed to perform teeth cleaning under direct supervision. Assistance with surgery is permissible under immediate supervision.


Alaska

Under Alaska statute, a person may not practice veterinary medicine, surgery, or dentistry in the state unless the person is licensed as a veterinarian, except that a person may perform functions authorized by regulation of the board if the person is licensed as a veterinary technician.

Duties performed by a veterinary technician must be those for which the veterinary technician is trained and that are compatible with the practice act. With supervision, a variety of tasks can be performed.Performance of surgery is prohibited


Arizona

A veterinarian is allowed to perform all dental procedures.

An equine dental practitioner or veterinarian technician must be certified and is allowed to perform the following procedures under the general supervision of a licensed veterinarian:

  • The application of any apparatus used to work on the oral cavity;
  • The examination of dental conditions;
  • The removal of overgrowth from the teeth of horses and the removal of sharp enamel points from the teeth of horses, excluding any extractions unless the certified equine dental practitioner is under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.

Performance of surgery is prohibited.


California

Dental operations are to be performed by a licensed veterinarian and include the application or use of any instrument or device to any portion of an animal's tooth, gum, or any related tissue for the prevention, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture, injury, or disease of an animal's tooth, gum, or related tissue.

Preventive dental procedures are defined as including, but not limited to, the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, or stains, or the smoothing, filing, or polishing of tooth surfaces.

Nothing in this regulation shall prohibit, however, any person from utilizing cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, toothbrushes, or similar items to clean an animal's teeth.

No person, other than a licensed veterinarian, may induce anesthesia unless authorized by regulation of the board.

A veterinary technician requires supervision largely at the discretion of the veterinarian, with some exceptions. Surgery is prohibited and direct supervision is required for dental extractions.


Colorado

A licensed veterinarian may perform equine dental procedures. "Dentistry" means:

  • The diagnosing, treating, correcting, changing, relieving, or preventing abnormalities of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area or associated structures, including surgical, non-surgical, or related procedures;
  • The application or use of any instrument or device to any portion of an animal’s tooth, gum, or any related tissue for the prevention, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture, injury, or disease of an animal’s tooth, gum, or related tissue;
  • Preventive dental procedures including, but not limited to, the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, stains, or the smoothing, filing, or polishing of tooth surfaces.

Utilization of cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, or toothbrushes on an animal’s teeth is not included in this definition.

Colorado allows for the performance of duties by a veterinary technician other than diagnosis, prescription, surgery, or initiating treatment as long as the duties of the veterinary technician are performed under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian who shall be responsible for such person's performance.


Connecticut

A licensed veterinarian may perform dental procedures.

A veterinary technician must be certified and have at least minimal classroom training plus supervised hands-on practice in any procedures being practiced.

The floating of teeth in horses by persons experienced in that practice and the performance of myofascial trigger point therapy by persons experienced in that practice shall not be deemed to be the practice of veterinary medicine.


Delaware

A licensed veterinarian may perform dental procedures.

A veterinary technician can provide support activities under veterinary supervision. Surgery is excluded from tasks that may be done by a veterinary technician.

District of Columbia

A licensed veterinarian can perform equine dental procedures.

A veterinary technician must have a degree in veterinary medicine from an institution accredited by the AVMA, and may perform acts relating to maintenance of the health of or treatment of any animal performed under the immediate and direct supervision and control of a licensed veterinarian. Performance of surgery is prohibited.


Florida

A "veterinarian" means a person who is licensed to engage in surgery, acupuncture, obstetrics, dentistry, physical therapy, radiology, theriogenology, and other branches or specialties of animal medicine.

A Certified Veterinary Technician instructs clients, performs laboratory testing, takes radiographs, provides skilled nursing care to animal patients, administers medications, and assists in anesthesia and surgery. All of these tasks are done at the direction of a veterinarian, but may be performed with varying levels of supervision as specified by the veterinary practice act.

Floating of equine teeth is exempt from veterinary requirements thereby allowing non-veterinarians to perform the task without supervision by a veterinarian, although it appears that these exemptions are limited to using non-motorized tools.


Georgia

'Licensed veterinarian' means a person who is validly and currently licensed to practice veterinary medicine in the state.

Veterinarians are allowed to apply or use any instrument or device on any portion of an animal's tooth, gum, or any related tissue for the prevention, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture, injury, disease, or other condition of an animal's tooth, gum, or related tissue, and to engage in preventive dental procedures on animals including, but not limited to, the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, or stains, or the smoothing, filing, or polishing of tooth surfaces.

Any veterinary technician must at all times be under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian whenever practicing veterinary technology in this state. The level of supervision shall be consistent with the delegated animal health care task. Performance of surgery is prohibited.

A veterinary technician working under the direction, supervision, and control of a duly licensed veterinarian may provide the following animal patient care under direct supervision: dental procedures, including, but not limited to, the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, and stains, the smoothing, filing, and polishing of teeth, or the flotation or dressing of equine teeth, and dental extraction not requiring sectioning of the tooth or the resectioning of bone.


Hawaii

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technician license requirements include completion of at least an associate degree at an accredited vet tech school in Hawaii and passing the VTNE (Veterinary Technician National Examination) given by the American Association of State Veterinary Boards.

Veterinary technicians are unregulated, except that only veterinarians may perform veterinary medicine.


Idaho

Veterinarians are required to diagnose and perform operative dentistry, oral surgery, and teeth extraction procedures.

Veterinary technicans are prohibited from diagnosis and performance of procedures that constitute operative dentistry/oral surgery.


Illinois

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental services.

A veterinary technician shall provide veterinary service under the control, direction, and supervision of a licensed veterinarian, who is responsible for the services performed by the technician.

The duties of a technician shall not include the making of a diagnosis or prognosis, prescribing or writing prescriptions for drugs, medication, or any other material for the care of treatment of any animal, or performing any kind of surgery upon any animal.


Iowa

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental services.

Veterinary technicians work under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian for any purpose except diagnosis, prescription, or surgery, which they may not perform.


Indiana

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental services.

A veterinary technician may not diagnose, prognose, prescribe medical or surgical treatment, or perform as a surgeon.

However, the technician may perform routine procedures defined by board rules while under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian who shall be responsible for the technician's performance.


Kansas

"Veterinarian" means a person who has received a doctor of veterinary medicine degree or the equivalent from a school of veterinary medicine and a veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

A veterinary technician must be supervised when participating in the practice of veterinary medicine; however, a veterinarian shall not delegate diagnosis, performance of any surgical procedure, or the prescription of any drug, medicine, biologic, apparatus, application, anesthesia, or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or technique to a veterinary technician..


Kentucky

A licensed veterinarian may perform all equine dental procedures.

A veterinary technician must have an associate degree related to veterinary sciences, or its equivalent, as approved by the board.

The services of a veterinary technologist or veterinary technician shall be limited to the performance of duties under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian, except for the routine administration of drugs, vaccines, parasite control agents, and growth-stimulating implants for food animals prescribed by a veterinarian and under the indirect supervision of a veterinarian where a veterinarian-client-patient relationship exists.

A veterinary technologist or veterinary technician shall not diagnose, prescribe medication or treatment, or perform surgical procedures other than castrating and dehorning of food animals.

A veterinary technologist or veterinary technician may assist a veterinarian in all duties of veterinary medicine and surgery.


Louisiana

The practice of equine dentistry includes the rasping (floating) of molar, premolar, and canine teeth, and the removal of deciduous incisor and premolar teeth (caps); additionally, an equine dentist may extract equine first premolar teeth (wolf teeth) after complying with the requirements. A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all dental procedures.

A veterinary technician with proper training and under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian may perform the rasping or floating of molar, premolar, and canine teeth, and the removal of deciduous incisor and premolar teeth or caps.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a registered veterinary technician may perform veterinary medical assistance under the direct supervision of a veterinarian licensed to practice in this state approved by the board, except that no registered veterinary technician shall perform animal diagnosis, the prescribing of treatment or medications, or any surgical procedures.


Maine

"Veterinarian" means a person who is validly and currently licensed by the board to practice veterinary medicine in this state and who has received a doctor's degree in veterinary medicine from a school of veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine includes veterinary surgery, obstetrics, dentistry, and all other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine, including all aspects of the "practice of veterinary medicine."

A veterinary technician may perform, under the supervision and direction of a licensed veterinarian, such duties as drug administration, nursing care, x-ray film exposure and processing, bandage changes, dental prophylaxis, restraint, blood and fecal collections, diagnostic laboratory procedures and other duties the supervising veterinarian or the board may prescribe by rule, except no one but a veterinarian may diagnose, make prognoses, prescribe or initiate treatment or surgery, or perform surgery.


Maryland

“Veterinarian” means an individual who is licensed and registered as a veterinarian to practice in the state. A veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

A registered veterinary technician may perform the following procedures under the responsible direct supervision of a veterinarian: induce anesthesia by intramuscular injection, apply casts and splints, perform simple dental extractions of loose teeth that do not involve flaps or tooth sectioning, and suture existing surgical skin or gingival incisions, and access a small working stock of Schedule II drugs under separate lock.

A registered veterinary technician may perform anesthetic induction by inhalation or intravenous injection if the veterinarian is able to maintain direct visual supervision of the technician's performance.

A veterinarian may not permit a technician to perform the following procedures except under direct supervision: anesthesia induction by inhalation or intravenous injection, anesthesia induction by intramuscular injection, application of casts and splints, dental extractions, and suturing of existing surgical skin incisions.

Maryland exempts equine teeth floating from the practice of veterinary medicine, thereby allowing non-veterinarians to perform the task without supervision by a veterinarian, although it appears that these exemptions are limited to using non-motorized tools.


Massachusetts

The practice of equine dentistry is an integral branch of equine veterinary medicine. All veterinary medical procedures shall be performed by a licensed veterinarian.

A veterinary technician may, under direct veterinary supervision, clean and polish teeth.


Michigan

All veterinary procedures including equine dentistry are to be performed by a licensed veterinarian.

A veterinary technican may perform activities under supervision of a veterinarian.


Minnesota

The practice of veterinary medicine means the diagnosis, treatment, correction, relief, or prevention of animal disease, deformity, defect, injury, or other physical or mental conditions and includes equine dentistry.

All veterinary procedures, including equine dentistry, are to be performed by a licensed veterinarian.

Employees of a licensed veterinarian may not perform surgery, diagnosis and prognosis, or prescribe drugs, medicines, or appliances. Veterinary tech activities are allowed under veterinary supervision.

Non-veterinarians who have met certain criteria may provide equine teeth floating services. The law requires equine teeth floaters to be certified by the International Association of Equine Dentistry (IAED) or other professional equine dentistry associations, as determined by the board.


Mississippi

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

A veterinary technician's activities must be under the direction and supervision of the veterinarian who shall be responsible for the performance of the employee, with diagnosis, prognosis, prescription, or surgery prohibited.


Missouri

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technician activities are to be performed under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian. A veterinary technician may perform dental prophylaxis with direct supervision by a veterinarian.


Montana

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Support personnel, including veterinary technicians, shall work under the supervision of a veterinarian who is responsible for the services performed by support personnel. Support personnel shall not diagnose, initiate treatment, perform surgery, prescribe medicine, or prognosticate.


Nebraska

Licensed veterinarians are allowed to perform all dental services.

Veterinary technicians must have direct supervision by a veterinarian to perform the following dental procedures:  removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, and stains; smoothing, filing, and polishing of teeth; flotation or dressing of equine teeth.

Immediate supervision is required for a dental extraction not requiring the sectioning of a tooth or the resectioning of bone.


Nevada

An equine dentist is a veterinarian that has taken course work in equine dentistry, including all dental disciplines, such as oral surgery, endodontics, management of occlusal abnormalities, periodontics, and restorative dentistry.

Veterinary technicians are allowed to provide dental care under immediate supervision when performing dental extractions and gingival incisions, and under immediate direct or indirect supervision for teeth cleaning.


New Hampshire

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

State rules and regulations do not address veterinary technicians.


New Jersey

Veterinary technicians may perform activities under the supervision and direction of a licensed veterinarian in his/her practice of veterinary medicine with a prohibition on diagnosis, prescriptions, or performing surgery.


New Mexico

A licensed veterinarian may perform all equine dental procedures.

A veterinary technician may provide veterinary services under the supervision and direction of the licensed veterinarian who is responsible for the performance of that technician.


New York

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Degree programs for veterinary technicians cover a range of topics related to veterinary medicine, including biology, medicine, and dentistry. To qualify for a New York vet tech license, a person must hold a two-year degree and pass the Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE).

A veterinary technician may provide veterinary services under the general supervision of a veterinarian.


North Carolina

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures

A veterinary technician may assist a veterinarian in diagnosis, laboratory analysis, anesthesia, and surgical procedures. All activities must be performed under the direction and supervision of a veterinarian. Neither the employee nor the veterinary technician may perform any act producing an irreversible change in the animal.


North Dakota

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technician activities are to be performed under the direction, supervision, and control of a veterinarian.


Ohio

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

A veterinary technician must have veterinarian supervision for allowed activities and direct supervision for dental prophylaxis, periodontal care, and extraction not involving sectioning of teeth or resection of bone or both of these. Equine dental procedures, including the floating of molars, premolars, and canine teeth, removal of deciduous teeth, and the extraction of first premolars or wolf teeth must be directly supervised by a veterinarian.


Oklahoma

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Non-veterinary equine dental care providers may be certified by the Board of Veterinary Medicine, also known as a "practitioner of teeth floating." Teeth floating includes the removal of enamel points and the smoothing, contouring, and leveling of dental arcades and incisors of equine and other farm animals. Authorization does not include dental procedures on canines and felines. Prescription drug use for procedures is allowed under certain conditions.

Veterinary technician activities require supervision from a veterinarian.

Prohibited activities for veterinary technicians include diagnosis, prescriptions, or surgery. However, a registered veterinary technician may perform dental scaling and polishing as directed by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian without the continuing physical presence of the licensed veterinarian.


Oregon

Dental operations or procedures shall be performed only by licensed veterinarians.

Veterinary technician activities require supervision from a veterinarian.

Veterinarian technicians are allowed to perform preventive veterinary dental procedures, including, but not limited to, the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, and stains, or the smoothing, filing, or polishing of tooth surfaces.

Dental procedures shall be performed only by licensed veterinarians, certified veterinary technicians, or veterinary assistants under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.


Pennsylvania

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all dental procedures.

Veterinary technician activities require direct or indirect veterinary supervision.

Performing surgery, diagnosis, prognosis, providing prescriptions, including treatments, medications or appliances, or attesting to health status is prohibited.


Rhode Island

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technician activities assisting the veterinarian are allowed under the general supervision, direction, and control of a veterinarian.


South Carolina

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technican activities are allowed under the direct supervision of a veterinarian.


South Dakota

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

A veterinary technician may only work under the direction or supervision of the licensed veterinarian or veterinarians by whom he is employed.


Tennessee

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technician activities require direct supervision by a licensed veterinarian on premises, except that an employee of the veterinarian may be permitted to float teeth without the physical presence of a licensed veterinarian as long as the employee is functioning under the supervision, control, and responsibility of the licensed veterinarian.


Texas

A licensed veterinarian may perform "equine dentistry," which means any diagnosis, treatment, or surgical procedure performed on the head or oral cavity of an equine animal. The term includes:

  • Any procedure that invades the tissues of the oral cavity, including a procedure to: (i) remove sharp enamel projections, (ii) treat malocclusions of the teeth, (iii) reshape teeth, and (iv) extract one or more teeth;
  • The treatment or extraction of damaged or diseased teeth;
  • The treatment of diseased teeth through restoration and endodontic procedures;
  • Periodontal treatments, including: (i) the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, and stains above the gum line, and (ii) the smoothing, filing, and polishing of tooth surfaces;
  • Dental radiography.

A veterinary technician may provide veterinary services under the supervision and direction of the licensed veterinarian who is responsible for the performance of that technician.

Certain equine dental procedures may be performed by a licensed equine dental provider who is active and in good standing under the appropriate level of supervision of a veterinarian who is active and in good standing and who has established a veterinarian-client-patient relationship with the owner or other caretaker of an animal.


Utah

A licensed veterinarian may practice any veterinary medicine, dentistry, or surgery on any animal.

Veterinary technician activities require direct veterinary supervision. The following activities are prohibited: diagnosis, prognosis, surgery, or prescription of drugs, medicines, or appliances.


Vermont

A licensed veterinarian may perform any equine dental procedures.

Although state rules and regulation do not directly address the work of veterinary technicians, Vermont exempts equine teeth floating from the practice of veterinary medicine, thereby allowing non-veterinarians to perform the task without supervision by a veterinarian, although it appears that these exemptions are limited to using non-motorized tools.


Virginia

A licensed veterinarian may perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technicians performing acts relating to maintenance of the health of or treatment of any animal require immediate and direct supervision and control of a veterinarian. In addition, the Board of Veterinary Medicine may register equine dental technicians under regulation of the board.

Permissible duties are planing or leveling of equine teeth using nonmotorized hand tools for routine dental maintenance, or planing or leveling using motorized tools or the extraction of wolf teeth under the direct supervision of a veterinarian.

No equine dental technician may administer any sedative, tranquilizer, analgesic, prescription medication, or drug.


Washington

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

A veterinary technician's activities require veterinary supervision. Immediate supervision is required for dental extractions. Direct supervision is required for teeth cleaning, provided an oral examination of the anesthetized patient has been conducted by the veterinarian, and for floating teeth.


West Virginia

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technicians must work under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian on the premises. A technician's principal function is to assist the veterinarian. Veterinary technicians shall not perform surgery, make diagnoses, or prescribe medications.


Wisconsin

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technicians require direct supervision by a veterinarian for dental prophylaxis and extractions. Veterinary technicians may not perform the following: diagnosis and prognosis of animal diseases and conditions, prescribing of drugs, medicines, treatments and appliances, or performing surgery.


Wyoming

A licensed veterinarian is allowed to perform all equine dental procedures.

Veterinary technicians may not perform the following: surgery, diagnosis and prognosis, or prescription of drugs, medicines, and appliances.

A veterinarian delegating tasks must ensure that the activities of a supervised individual are within the scope of the orders, assignment or prescriptions of the licensee, and within the capabilities of the individual.

Rules and regulations are subject to change

This article reflects the rules and regulations at the date of publication. Please note that these rules and regulations are subject to change at any time. Always contact your local government agencies to find out the current rules and regulations.

Published: February 11, 2013

Dig DeeperTM

Source for veterinarian technician information: Staff research, AVMA State Legislative and Regulatory Affairs Department

For more information about State Licensing Requirements of Equine Veterinary Technicians

For more information about Non Veterinarians Providing Equine Dental Services

AAEP Horse Dentistry

AAEP Position Paper on Equine Dentistry

Dental practice includes the evaluation, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures as well as the evaluation of the contribution of oral conditions to the overall health of the individual patient.

Dental practice is provided by a veterinarian, within the scope of his or her education, training and experience, in accordance with the ethics of the profession and applicable law.

Oral conditions can be the cause of systemic disease such as bacterial endocarditis caused by periodontal disease as well as an indicator of systemic disease such as renal failure or hyperparathyroidism. To practice within the current standard of veterinary care, sedation is required for thorough examination of the oral cavity.

Additionally, the diagnostic evaluation of orofacial tissues necessitates the use of imaging modalities, such as radiography or computed tomography. Most dental procedures, including basic tooth floating, are irreversible with potentially significant iatrogenic consequences.

Based on veterinary research and the application of dental science, dental practice has advanced significantly over the past decade. We now know that many aggressive dental practices performed during the past half century such as severe 'bit seating' and 'performance floating, are either unnecessary or detrimental. The treatment of many dental conditions requires the management of pain, inflammation and infection, and possibly the treatment of concurrent systemic disease.

Veterinary training is a prerequisite to the practice of equine dentistry within the current standard of veterinary care, and the practice of equine dentistry by autonomous non-veterinarian dental care providers (NVDCPs) jeopardizes the health and welfare of horses.

by Drs. Stephen Galloway and Lynn Caldwell    Dr. Stephen S. Galloway is an Equine Fellow of the Academy of Veterinary Dentistry and a former member of the AAEP Dentistry Committee (2006-2008). Dr. Lynn Caldwell is the chair of the AAEP Dentistry Committee.

About the author

As an animal lover since childhood, Flossie was delighted when Mark, the CEO and developer of EquiMed asked her to join his team of contributors.

She enrolled in My Horse University at Michigan State and completed a number of courses in everything related to horse health, nutrition, diseases and conditions, medications, hoof and dental care, barn safety, and first aid.

Staying  up-to-date on the latest developments in horse care and equine health is now a habit, and she enjoys sharing a wealth of information with horse owners everywhere..

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