Horse Hoof Abscesses: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

Abscess

Abscess

A hoof abscess is a localized bacterial infection in the sensitive structure of the hoof.
© April Raine | EquiDesis, LLC. New window.

I head out to the barn as the sun is just brushing the horizon, whistling to let my girls know I am coming, hear the familiar good morning nicker from my lead mare, Nan, and then she limps into her stall. The flash of panic before the calm sets in, and then I sigh as this event, when it happens, always seems to hit the day before I am due to leave for a competitive trail event.

I walk into her stall, looking for the worst possible injury, and there is nothing. Then the light bulb goes off - the beginning stages of a hoof abscess. The funny thing is that I rarely know when Nan has had an abscess in a rear hoof until the tell-tale line appears on her hoof once the abscess has blown, and in her rear feet the abscess always seems to vent on her coronary band and on the front of the hoof. However, she consistently suffers from a more severe issue with abscesses in her front hoof, and it is always the same hoof.

Causes of equine hoof abscesses

A hoof abscess is a localized bacterial infection in the sensitive structure of the hoof, or in layman’s terms, an abscess is the hoof’s way of getting rid of dead cells from a trauma. Truly, it is a pimple in the hoof. An abscess can develop for many reasons. Some common causes can be:

  • Introduction of a foreign body (a pebble, for example)
  • Shoeing nails hitting too close to the laminae, thus allowing bacteria to enter
  • Some other kind of trauma to the sensitive layers of the hoof, such as going from shod to barefoot without proper preparation
  • Reaction to bruising
  • Laminitis
  • Shoeing difficulties
  • Navicular disease
  • Contraction of the heels
  • Going from dry to wet weather conditions

Whatever the reason for the development of the abscess, it is important to know that since the hoof cannot expand, the increased pressure of the pus collecting within the hoof capsule, created as the body reacts to the infection, causes what can be significant pain to the horse.

As each day passes, the pus finds and takes the path of least resistance to relieve the pressure and will usually work its way up the hoof wall, normally breaking out at the coronary band, although the abscess can also break through the bulbs on the heel.

Symptoms

Thermographic view

Thermographic view

You can see how uneven the heat is in the coronary bands. The one on the left (facing you) is the hoof with the abscess.
©Miriam Rieck, 2012 New window.

Symptoms can range from no symptoms to complete lameness. I have had both situations with Nan. When she has an abscess in her rear hoof, I never know until the abscess blows out. However, in her front hoof the abscesses get to a point where she is so lame that she has all of the following symptoms:

  • Swelling in the lower leg
  • Heat is felt if you place your [no-glossary] hand on the exterior of the hoof wall
  • Increased digital arterial pulse in the hoof
  • Attempts to walk on the toe

On two of her most severe abscesses I have even had thermographs performed (see image at left).

Treatment

After the new hoof grew out, there was a period of about 18 months where the mare suffered three major abscesses in that particular hoof.

Once I realize that I am dealing with an abscess, I begin treatment. If your horse is shod, you will first need to have the shoe pulled and then, with hoof pincers, try to more accurately pinpoint the sorest area. I recommend that, even if you are going to treat the horse yourself, you start with an appointment with your farrier and veterinarian, at the same time if possible.

If you can find the black line (which is what the infected area looks like), then it may be possible to actually create a hole in the sole or the white line area to allow the infection to escape. If the infection is located and a hole is created, a lot of times a blackish or brownish, nasty-smelling fluid (pus) will ooze out. Once the hole has been created, you will need to keep the hoof clean, packed, and bandaged for several days to a week, depending on how long it takes for the lameness to disappear.

If the infection is deep in the hoof, then the process of eliminating the infection and relieving the horse of pain will take longer. Most of the abscesses that Nan has had in her front hoof have been the long, drawn-out, painful kind and I start with the following treatment:

Week one hoof treatment

The first week, I give her a 15-minute Epsom salt bath in hot water twice a day, using a soaking hoof boot that I bought through one of the online horse supply stores. (It has proven to be a very worthwhile purchase.) I then clean and dry the hoof, pack it with Mag 60 Paste (a poultice that my vet gives me), put a gauze pad on top, and wrap her hoof in vet wrap, taking care not to wrap too tightly and cut off blood supply. I then take duct tape and create a secondary wrapping over the vet wrap to help it last the 12 or so hours I need it to.

I also start her on a gram of Bute once a day (recommended by my veterinarian). Then, I keep her turned out in a large, but controlled, area by my barn. Continued movement, not stall rest, is what helps the abscess express and relieve the pressure. Nan’s abscesses have taken up to 14-21 days to come to a venting point.

Week two treatment

Slow growing

Slow growing

Some hoof traumas can take years to grow out. This image shows evidence of the abscess in the hoof wall two years later.
©Miriam Rieck, 2012 New window.

If I go into week two, I soak her hoof only once a day, make sure that the hoof is FULLY dry (to prevent other issues from taking place), pack with the poultice, wrap, and repeat every 24 hours until I see her take full weight-bearing steps. Then every morning, when I unwrap her hoof, I start looking for the venting hole in either the coronary band or her sole. If the abscess vents in her sole, I keep her hoof clean and wrapped until I see the hole closed and it becomes obvious that it is no longer going to need wrapping or cleaning. This can take up to a month or more.

It is my belief that Nan’s repeated abscess issues are the result of a HUGE traumatic injury she sustained almost two years ago. That injury was caused by a six-inch wooden splinter that penetrated her coronary band and nicked the artery in that hoof. The veterinarian ended up literally cutting away a sizeable section of the hoof wall in order to remove all of the splintering. After the new hoof grew out, there was a period of about 18 months where she suffered three major abscesses in that particular hoof.

Since a hoof takes so long to grow out, the last of that injury (it has been over two years now) has almost grown out and the last abscess she suffered is about ¾ of the way down her front hoof.

Thermographic view

Environmental changes

Severe droughts followed by heavy rains never bodes well for horses prone to hoof ailments.
©Miriam Rieck, 2012 New window.

To date, she has had only rear hoof abscesses. The weather in Central Texas, where Nan and I live, has been severe drought  followed by heavy rains, and that type of weather pattern never bodes well for horses that are prone to hoof ailments.

Nan's abscesses exclusively happen in either a black hoof or the black section of the hoof, so the old wives' tale about “white” hooves being weak is just not true in this case.

Prevention of hoof abscesses in horses

To lessen your chances of having a hoof abscess, you should maintain your regular farrier schedule, as hooves that are not kept in shape are more vulnerable to injury. And when you do notice an abscess, act promptly in consulting your veterinarian and farrier. Be prepared and have the supplies you will need on hand to treat the problem.

Note:

Miriam Rieck is neither a veterinarian nor a farrier, and as such the reader should rely on and consult with a horse care professional, such as a veterinarian or farrier, concerning the proper care of this ailment on your horse, including the selection of wraps, boots, or other actions related to any information provided in this article.

Dig deeperTM

You may also learn more about hoof health by reading Quick and Easy Rules for Maximum Hoof Health.

Related products

Please help us keep EquiMed active. Any purchases that you make through our site provide us with a small commission at no cost to you. Please begin your horse health shopping here.

An easy to read and follow guide to hoof care, Knack Leg and Hoof Care for Horses: A Complete Illustrated Guide is an essential one-stop information source on how to keep a horse sound, happy, and pain-free through proper care of the feet and legs. This handbook focuses solely on hoof conditions and leg ailments, with the added bonus of preventative care.

This Hoof Tester Veterinary Instrument will help you locate the site of infections and abscesses in your horse's hooves. Made of stainless steel, these hoof testers are durable and easy to use.

Use ICHTHAMMOL - 20% - DRAWING SALVE - HEALING & SOOTHING AGENT as an emollient to treat dry, cracked and brittle hooves. Antiseptic ointment promotes healing and is used to pack hooves after work or exercise to draw out stones, pebbles and other debris.

About the author

After a lifetime of loving horses, Miriam had her first horse at age 41. With Nan she has learned about breeding, foals, health issues, hoof issues, eye issues and is still learning how to become a better riding partner with Nan. She works on this with Nan while riding in Texas Trail Challenges.

With Misty, her second horse of the herd, she gained confidence on the trail riding in NATRC(North American Trail Ride Conference) and Misty is her go to girl. Her horses are her Zen place in life.

Miriam has been writing her entire life and began getting published in her early 20's. All of her work has been of the informative article type and always on topics she has become familiar with in the personal arena first. She currently lives in Central Texas but is looking at a state address change in the near future. She loves writing for Equimed and looks forward to a long future with them.

Visit Miriam Rieck's Google+ page