Aminoglycosides

Pronunciation

uh-MEE-noh-glahy-kuh-sides - Pronunciation guide

Brand Names

  • Amiglyde-V
  • Amikacin E
  • Gentamicin
  • Gentamicin Sulfate Solution
  • Gentasoothe Topical Spray
  • Gentaved 100
  • Neomycin
  • Streptomycin

Description

Rx symbolAminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against a certain type of bacteria, and are primarily used to treat infections that are caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria. This group of antibiotics includes at least eight drugs: amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, paromomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin.

Aminoglycosides are not effective for anaerobic and most gram-positive bacteria. .

When used to treat infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria, aminoglycosides are often combined with other antibiotics, such as penicillin, for wide-spectrum bacterial treatment.

Usage

In horses, aminoglycosides are commonly prescribed for the treatment of uterine infections, and also to improve conception in breeding mares. These drugs are typically administered by intrauterine infusion.

Aminoglycosides are also used systemically to treat infections. Most veterinarians will sample and culture the bacteria to determine the most effective aminoglycoside to be used in treatment.

Aminoglycosides are not well-absorbed in the gut, so administration is through infusion (uterine), intravenous, or intramuscular injection. There are also topical preparations that can be applied directly to the skin for wounds and abrasions.

Dosage and Administration

Prescription medicationAminoglycosides
Method Dosage
(click row for calculator)
Concentration Period Duration
1Infusion into uterus 2000 mg AMIKACIN E 250 mg/ml Daily 3 consecutive days
2Intravenous, Intramuscular or Subcutaneous injection 6 mg/kg AMIKACIN Sulfate Injection 250 mg/ml Daily 3 consecutive days
2Intraarticular injection 125 mg AMIKACIN Sulfate Injection 250 mg/ml Daily 3 consecutive days
3Infusion into uterus 2000-2500 mg GENTAMICIN Sulfate Solution 100 mg/ml Daily 5 consecutive days
2Intravenous or Intramuscular injection 2.2 mg/kg GENTAMICIN Sulfate Solution 100 mg/ml 3 times daily 5 consecutive days
2Intravenous, Intramuscular or Subcutaneous injection 5-7 mg/kg GENTAMICIN Sulfate Solution 100 mg/ml Daily 5 consecutive days

Notes:

  • Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.
  • 1For treatment of uterine infections in mares, 2 grams (8 mL) of Amikacin E Solution (Amikacin Sulfate Solution), mixed with 200 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP and aseptically infused into the uterus daily for three consecutive days, has been found to be the most efficacious dosage.
  • 2Not approved for use in horses. Extra-label use only under the direct supervision of a veterinarian.
  • 3The recommended dose is 20 to 25 mL (2.0 - 2.5 grams) gentamicin sulfate solution per day for 3 to 5 days during estrus. Each dose should be diluted with 200-500 mL of sterile physiological saline before aseptic uterine infusion.
  • Calculator is for educational purposes only. Follow your veterinarian's instructions regarding use of this, or any medication.

Side Effects

Aminoglycosides can be toxic to and cause damage to the inner ear and kidneys. Inner ear damage may affect balance.

Precautions

Aminoglycosides should not be used with other drugs that are known to be toxic to the ears, kidneys, or nervous system.

Some aminoglycoside drugs are not approved for use in horses, but usage is accepted and is a common practice. U. S. federal law restricts these drugs to use by or on the written prescription of a licensed veterinarian.

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are forbidden in drug-free competitions. It is important to check with the individual regulatory group.

Interactions

Use of diuretics in horses being treated with aminoglycosides increases the chances of kidney damage. Certain drugs used in anesthesia may have an increased effect when used with aminoglycosides.

Overdose

Overdose increases the degree of potential damage to the inner ear and kidneys.

Images

Gentamacin Sulfate Solution Gentamacin Sulfate Solution

Gentasoothe Topical SprayGentasoothe Topical Spray

Literature

Product labels

The drug labels on this website represent drug information listings as submitted to the FDA.The drug labels on this website have not been altered or modified by EquiMed. The drug labels on this website may not be the most current or identical to the current labels shipped with the product. Contact your veterinarian or the manufacturer for the latest information on this drug or medication prior to use.

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