During the 2nd quarter of 2019, numerous cases of equine diseases were reported throughout the world. The International Collating Center Newmarket, United Kingdom, and other sources reported the following equine disease outbreaks:
African horse sickness was reported in Cameroon, Chad, Eswatini, and the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Significant losses were recorded in Chad with a case-fatality rate of 85%. An increased incidence was seen in the endemic areas in RSA, with outbreaks confirmed in eight of the nine provinces. No cases were documented in the Western Cape Province, either in the historically affected area or in the AHS controlled zone.
Outbreaks of equine influenza were confirmed by France (19), Germany (11), Ireland (19), Italy (three), Senegal (one), the UK (97), and the USA (three). The majority of outbreaks involved unvaccinated horses or horses with incomplete vaccination histories.Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, and the USA recorded outbreaks of strangles. The number of outbreaks ranged from one (Belgium and Ire-land) to 20 (France) with three in Germany and 14 in the USA.
Strangles is considered endemic by many countries.
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) related diseases were reported by Belgium, France, Germany, the UK, and the USA.
Respiratory disease was confirmed in Belgium (four outbreaks), France (two outbreaks), Germany (five outbreaks), the UK (one outbreak), and the USA (one outbreak; the disease likely occurred in many states).
Outbreaks of EHV-1 abortion were recorded by a number of countries, most involving a single case of the disease. The number of outbreaks ranged from one (Australia and the USA), two (Canada and Germany), three (France and Japan), and 11 (Belgium). Two reported cases had co-infections with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. in-terrogans and S. zooepidemicus. Abortions were confirmed in vaccinated and unvaccinated mares.
EHV-1 neurologic disease was recorded in Canada (one case), Germany (two cases), the UK (one case), and the USA (11 outbreaks, the majority involving single cases of the disease, six of which had recently attended an equine event).
Equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) respiratory disease was reported by France (12 outbreaks), Germany (several outbreaks), Sweden (three horses in one outbreak), and the UK (eight outbreaks involving one to multiple horses). France recorded a single case of EHV-4 abortion.Rhodococcus equi infection was confirmed by France (one case), Ireland (two cases), and the USA (at least 42 cases).
The UK reported asymptomatic equine arteritis virus infection in three non-Thoroughbred stallions on one premises and an additional case in a non-Thoroughbred stallion on a separate premises epidemiologically linked to the first.
Equine infectious anemia was confirmed by Canada (five cases, of which one was clinically affected), Chile (one case), France (one clinical case), the USA (19 cases, the majority represent-ing isolated cases), and Uruguay (18 cases on a premises; all were euthanized). Equine piroplasmosis was reported as endemic in the RSA, the disease being recorded in every province.
Germany reported outbreaks of contagious equine metritis on several premises involving a total of 22 horses (19 stallions and three mares).
Single cases of leptospirosis were recorded by France and the USA, both involving infection of the placenta.
There were two reports of equine coital exanthema, one from France (single case) and the other from the USA (two cases).
Salmonellosis was recorded by the USA. Thirty cases were associated with infection with Salmonella Group B and two with Salmonella Group C2.
France, Germany, and the USA reported out-breaks of rotaviral enteritis in foals. Number of cases ranged from two in Germany, 24 in France, and 65 in five states in the USA, of which 59 were of the G14P genotype and six of the G3P geno-type. The greatest number of cases were recorded in June.
Clostridial enterocolitis due to Clostridium perfringens was recorded in the USA (27 cases). An additional 15 cases of C. difficile infection were also diagnosed. Vesicular stomatitis was confirmed in the USA late in the second quarter of 2019. Three outbreaks caused by the Indiana serotype were identified, two in Texas and one in New Mexico.
A total of 13 cases of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis were reported by the USA, the majority in Florida.
The RSA and the USA reported cases of West Nile Virus infection, one in the RSA and two in the USA. Equine encephalosis was reported in six of the nine provinces in the RSA.
A case of Hendra virus infection was confirmed in New South Wales, Australia.
Three cases of Tyzzer’s disease in foals were recorded by the USA.
The USA also reported two cases of equine coronavirus infection that were diagnosed at necropsy.
Germany confirmed single cases of equine ehrlichiosis on two premises.
Article provided by Equine Quarterly - Diane Furry - Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky